The effective range for each ranged weapon differs based on its type. Most of the time, the farther away your target is, the harder it is to hit them and the less damage you will do. The maximum range and damage based on range is given below.
Arms Covered 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Short Bow 07-10-10-08-06-04 Long Bow 05-09-10-09-08-08-07-06-05-04 Skull Bow 06-09-10-10-08-06-02 Crossbow 08-10-09-08-07-06-05-04 Throwing 06-10-07-04 Pistol 10-09-07-05-03 Shotgun 10-06-03 Machine Gun 08-10-10-09-08-07-04 Laser Pistol 10-10-10-10-10-10-10-05
For instance, when your distance is 1 -- the enemy is right next to you -- and you fire a longbow, the weapon's damage modifier is 05, or 50%. At a distance of three tiles, your damage modifier is 10, or 100% of your basic damage. For best attack power with the longbow, you must keep your distance, which you can verify with theook command.
Short bows and long bows use arrows.
Crossbows require bolts.
Thrown weapons can be equipped but cannot be fired while ammunition is equipped.
Elona+ changes to range are listed here.
Arms Covered 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Short Bow 09-10-10-08-06-02 Long Bow 05-09-10-09-08-08-07-06-05-02 Skull Bow 06-09-10-10-08-06-02 Crossbow 08-10-09-08-07-06-05-02 Shuriken/Stone 06-10-07-02 Panty 05-10-05-02 Grenade 08-10-09-08-06-02 Rock 09-10-05-02 *Melee Throw 05-08-06-02 Pistol 09-10-08-06-02 Shotgun 10-08-02 Machine Gun 08-10-10-09-08-07-02 Laser Pistol 10-10-10-10-10-10-10-02 Sniper Rifle 07-08-09-10-10-09-09-08-08-02 Distant attack 09-08-07-06
Among the changes to existing weapons, the shotgun and pistol have had their ranges slightly changed, and the laser pistol has had it's basic damage slightly reduced.
Distant attack refers to the use of the distant attack special action that is obtained when wielding weapons with the "It make possible to remote blow" attribute, such as the whip or chainsickle. When used, all equipped melee weapons will attack at the listed range.
(*) Melee throw only works in Elona+, you can throw any types of melee weapons (or shield) by simply equipping them in the Shoot slot. It works exactly like throwing weapon but the damage modifier is a little bit lower than usually throwing. Weapons used to attack in this manner use the throwing skill to determine damage, and do not train their individual weapon proficiencies. Similarly, ranged weapons used in melee use the blunt skill, and their normal ranges do not apply even when using the distant attack skill.
-- Melee weapons in the Shoot-Slot also provide their stat bonuses.